The liver is a vital organ its strategic location and multidimensional functions support almost every organ in the body (Singh R et al., 2013, Swaroop T et al., 2012). It performs a fundamental role in regulation of diverse physiological process. Liver diseases are major health problems across the world (Delgado M.C et al., 2015). Liver disease is the term indicates damage to the cells, tissues, structure or impairment in liver functions. This damage can induce by biological factors, autoimmune diseases, and toxic chemicals as well with drugs or medicines (Deshwal N et al., 2011). Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and occasionally even when introduced within therapeutic ranges, may injure the organ (Ostapowicz et al., 2002). Hepatotoxicity is the key reason to withdrawn of drug form market. There are more than 900 drugs have been implicated for causing liver injury or liver toxicity (Aashish Pandit et al., 2011). Chemicals that cause liver injury are called hepatotoxins (Friedman et al., 2003). The world health organization determined that around 2.4 million deaths yearly are linked to liver disease and that around 800 thousand of deaths attributable to cirrhosis (Ian A et al., 2016). The damage or infection in liver categorized in a various types, depending upon the condition including acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, liver steatosis, active chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver tumors etc (Ozer J et al., 2008). Injury and function of liver evaluated based upon clinical signs, a select group of serum clinical biomarkers, and occasionally liver biopsy (Yang X et al., 2012). The ideal attributes of a hepatotoxicity biomarker, including: organ specificity; a strong correlation with histopathology (Ozer J et al., 2008).
Over a few decades ago, the rate of intoxication of chemical materials has amazingly increased (Rahimzadeh R et al., 2010). People may use some drugs and chemicals in wrong way; as a result they may be poisoned intentionally or accidentally (Rahimzadeh R et al., 2014 and Paudyal B.P et al., 2005). Heavy metals are similar to other poisonous chemicals, from natural or industrial sources, can pose serious threats to human life (Rahimzadeh R et al., 2013). Cadmium poisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. It is one of the global health problems that affect many organs and in some serious cases it cause death (Mehrdad R.R et al., 2017). It is considered as deleterious pollutant that threats both animals and human health. Cd as identified as a category-I human carcinogen, due to its potential to induce pulmonary tumors (Waalkes M.P et al., 2003). The key sources of Cd intoxication cigarette smoking and ingestion of contaminated food or water (Skipper A et al., 2016).
DescriptionIn this final assignment, the students will demonstrate their ability to apply two ma
Path finding involves finding a path from A to B. Typically we want the path to have certain properties,such as being the shortest or to avoid going t
Develop a program to emulate a purchase transaction at a retail store. Thisprogram will have two classes, a LineItem class and a Transaction class. Th
1 Project 1 Introduction - the SeaPort Project series For this set of projects for the course, we wish to simulate some of the aspects of a number of
1 Project 2 Introduction - the SeaPort Project series For this set of projects for the course, we wish to simulate some of the aspects of a number of