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n this assignment you will implement your own driver for a new filesystem: SFS. This simple filesystem is loosely based on the FAT filesystem,

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I'd like to at least have a 6 for the tests that are supplied with the assignment.

 

Assignment 3: Filesystem

In this assignment you will implement your own driver for a new filesystem: SFS. This simple filesystem is

loosely based on the FAT filesystem, and supports (sub)directories and files of arbitrary size. It does have

some severe limitations, such as a maximum filesystem size of 8 MB, only a limited number of items per

directory, and no metadata such as file permissions.

Your task is to write a driver for this filesystem, so that files and directories can be navigated, read,

created, removed and modified. Writing a filesystem directly on a disk partition would be too complicated

for this assignment, and therefore your SFS filesystem is contained in an image. This image resides on

your normal (host) filesystem, and the driver you write will read and write to this image as if it is a disk.

Normally filesystem drivers are part of the operating system. However, for this assignment we will

implement the driver in userspace, through a framework called FUSE. With FUSE, drivers are

implemented as a normal (userspace) binary, and are called by the FUSE kernel driver when a user

interacts with your files. By using FUSE, you can actually use your driver to mount the SFS filesystem

under a directory, then allowing you to navigate into it using your favorite file browser, or cd into it with a

terminal and cat your files.

Layout of SFS

The diagram below shows a conceptual overview of an SFS partition/image (not to scale). Note that all

datatypes and information about the layout here are also provided in sfs.h in the framework, for your

code to use.:

+------------------------+

| Magic numbers |

| 16 bytes |

+------------------------+

| Root directory entries |

| 4096 bytes |

+------------------------+

| |

| Block table |

| 32 Kbyte |

| |

+------------------------+

| |

| |

| Data area |

| remainder (~8 Mbyte) |

| |

| |

+------------------------+

Each SFS partition starts with 16 bytes of magic numbers. These identify the partition as SFS, and if

these numbers are not found by your driver or any of the SFS tools (described later), they abort to prevent

corrupting data.

After the magic numbers follows the contents of the root directory of the SFS partition. The entries in the

root directory point either to files or subdirectories. The format of a directory entry is described later in this

section.

Following the root directory is the block table. Each file and subdirectory keeps its data in disk blocks of

512 byte. Files consisting of multiple blocks do not necessarily have consecutive data, and this block table

describes, for each block on disk, what the next block is. For the last block in a chain (i.e., the last block in

a file) a special marker is used: SFS_BLOCKIDX_END (0xfffe). Additionally, a value of

SFS_BLOCKIDX_EMPTY (0xffff) in this table indicates a block is unused, and can thus be allocated

when creating a file or directory. The block table has space for 0x4000 entries.

The data area spans the rest of the disk, and consists of 0x4000 blocks of 512 byte each, resulting in 8

MB of data.

Directory entry format

Each directory consists of a fixed number of entries, each representing a file or subdirectory (or unused

space). These are described by the following layout:

typedef uint16_t blockidx_t;

struct sfs_entry {

 char filename[58];

 blockidx_t first_block;

 uint32_t size;

} __attribute__((__packed__));

The filename of an entry is the name of the file or subdirectory. It is a null-terminated string, and thus

can contain at most 57 readable characters (excluding special characters such as '/').

The first_block field points to the first block index used by the file or subdirectory. For example, a

value of 3 in this field means the first part of the data is contained in the 4th disk block (because we start at

0), i.e., at offset 512 * 3 from the start of the data area. To find subsequent blocks of this entry, consult

the block table. For empty files, the first_block field contains the end-of-file marker.

Finally the size field describes the size of a file in bytes, and any special flags (in the upper 4 bits). In

particular, if the upper bit of this field is set, this entry refers to a directory instead of a file. In your code,

you can use the SFS_SIZEMASK and SFS_DIRECTORY macros for this. When an entry describes a

subdirectory (i.e., has its upper bit set) then the size-mark (i.e., the lower 28 bits) must be all zero.

So for subdirectories there an exists a directory entry in its parent directory with the upper bit of the size

field set. Each subdirectory consists of two consecutive blocks on disk, where the first_block field

points to the first one. The block table entries for these two blocks still describe the blocks the same as

files (i.e., the first block points to the 2nd block, and the 2nd block points to the end-of-file marker).

The total size of this directory entry struct is 64 bytes. Since the root directory is 4096 bytes, it contains 64

(possible) entries. Subdirectories are smaller (two 512 block, so 1024 bytes total) and only contain 16

entries.

Unused entries in a directory should set filename to all null characters, size to 0 and first_block to

SFS_BLOCKIDX_EMPTY.

SFS tools

For this assignment we provide two tools to create and inspect SFS images. These tools are invaluable

when developing and debugging your driver, so it is good to familiarize yourself with them.

Creating disk images with mkfs

The mkfs.sfs binary produces a valid SFS image (that you can mount) with any contents you specify.

For all supported options, see .mkfs.sfs --help.

To produce an image with this README, and empty directory foo, and an empty file bar/baz, you can run

the following command:

$ ./mkfs.sfs test.img /README:README.rst /foo/ /bar/baz

Creating fresh SFS filesystem

Creating file '/README' from host file 'README.rst'

Creating empty file '/bar/baz'

Some basic rules on the syntax of the arguments:

• First is always the name of the entry inside the image, always starting with a slash ('/').

• Any entry ending with a slash ('/') describes a directory.

• For files, an optional argument can be specified using a colon (':'). Without this optional

argument, the file will be empty. With this argument the file inside the SFS image will be created

with the contains of the filename on the host filesystem. In this example, inside the SFS image

we get a /README file with the contents of the host file README.rst.

Inspecting disk images with fsck

The fsck.sfs binary performs file system checks on SFS images, and can additionally print its contents.

See ./fsck.sfs --help for a list of all supported options.

By default the tool only performs (silent) checks, and will not produce output unless an error is found. With

the -l flag, it will print all files and directories in the image, e.g.:

$ ./fsck.sfs test.img

$ ./fsck.sfs -l test.img

00005373 0000 /README

80000000 002a /foo/

80000000 002c /bar/

00000000 fffe /bar/baz

The first field printed is the size of the entry (in hex). Notice the uppermost bit is set for directories). The

second field is the first block of the entry (in hex). Finally, the full path of the entry is printed.

For inspecting images in more detail, the -d flag will print the md5sum of each file, the -c flag prints the

full contents of each file, and the -b flag dumps the block indices of the blocklist.

The -v flag enables (very) verbose debug output. If fsck is reporting errors and you want to inspect the

situation in more detail, this can be useful.

Using FUSE

FUSE allows for userspace binaries to implement drivers, that are indirectly used by the kernel. This

allows you to mount a partition, image (or other source, like a network share) onto your filesystem. The file

sfs.c produces, when built, the sfs binary which will call into FUSE. This means that you mount an SFS

image by running your sfs binary.

Installing FUSE and building

For this assignment you can work natively on Linux or WSL2, but we also offer a Docker container that

should work correctly with FUSE when invoked with higher privileges. When using make docker-check

the --privileged flag is automatically passed to docker. For this to work correctly you may need to

install FUSE first on the host (e.g., sudo apt install fuse libfuse-dev).

If you are using Docker (e.g., because you're on macOS), you may also also want to use the docker

container interactively, for example to play with FUSE like described below. For this we recommend the

following command:

$ docker run --privileged -i -t --rm -v `pwd`:/code -w /code \

 vusec/vu-os-fs-check /bin/bash

This will launch a docker running bash, with your current host directory mounted at /code. On Linux you

probably want to add the -u `id -u`:`id -g` flag, so files on your host are not suddenly owned by

root. Important: any changes *outside* the /code directy are lost when you exit the container.

After installing the dependencies (or dropping into the docker container), you can (re)build your code by

simply running:

$ make

Mounting your image through FUSE

After building the sfs binary you can mount an image simply using:

$ mkdir mnt

$ ./sfs -v -i test.img mnt

 # getattr /.Trash

 # getattr /.Trash-1000

The -v flag enables some debug logging (as can be seen in sfs.c), and in this case shows the

callbacks that FUSE is calling into your application when the kernel asks for this. This is how FUSE

works: every action a user does on files goes through the kernel via system calls (e.g., read, write,

mkdir, readdir). Linux forwards these to FUSE, which in turn forwards them to your program.

One of the most fundamental calls within FUSE is the getattr callback. This asks your driver for

information on a file or directory, including whether it exists and, if so, its properties (e.g., is it a file or

directory, what is its size, etc). In the above example we saw two calls to this to this function, which is

Gnome detecting a new partition was mounted, and checking if there exists a "trash bin" on it. Our driver

can say no by returning the error code -ENOENT.

Let's try another example, by opening another terminal on the side:

$ ./sfs -v -i test.img mnt

 # getattr /.Trash

 # getattr /.Trash-1000

 $ ls mnt/

 # getattr /

 # readdir /

 ls: reading directory 'mnt': Function not implemented

 $ cat mnt/somefile

 # getattr /somefile

 cat: mnt/somefile: No such file or directory

 $

So we can't do much yet, but it demonstrates that simple programs like ls and cat are simply asking our

driver about the filesystem. For the ls example, it first checks if '/' exists in our image. The skeleton

implementation in this framework reports that it does, and thus ls goes on to read its directory contents.

This function is not implemented (it returns -ENOSYS), and this is what ls prints. When we try to read

some file with cat we can see that cat is asking if the file exists. Our skeleton getattr function returns

-ENOENT and thus cat thinks the file does not exist.

Try playing around with different programs to see what they do, especially after implementing a basic

version of getattr.

Interacting with the disk from your code

Your driver has to interact with the underlying storage device that contains the SFS partition. For

ease-of-use we use an image instead of a real disk partition. To interact with the (virtual) storage device,

the framework contains an interface that can be found in diskio.h. In particular:

void disk_read(void *buf, size_t size, off_t offset);

void disk_write(const void *buf, size_t size, off_t offset);

The disk_read function reads bytes from the disk into the provided buffer buf. The function will read

size bytes, and it will start reading from the disk at offset of offset bytes.

Similarly, the disk_write function writes size bytes of the provided buf onto the disk at offset.

You can find offsets for particular SFS areas in sfs.h (e.g., SFS_BLOCKTBL_OFF). To access the 4th

block of the data area (blockidx 4), you would read at offset SFS_DATA_OFF + 4 * SFS_BLOCK_SIZE.

Important: you must use these functions to read and write to/from the underlying storage device

(disk/image). Additionally, you should do this for every operation. You are not allowed to read the entire

contents of the disk into memory, operate in memory, and write the whole thing back.

For example, if we want to read file /foo, we would first issue a disk_read at SFS_ROOTDIR_OFF to

read the contents of the root directory. In the resulting data we look for an entry with the name foo. To

then read the contents of the file, we read the first 512 bytes with a disk_read call at the specified

blockidx in the data area. Then we need to find the next blockidx of the file, we issue a disk_read into

the blocktable, and we repeat calling disk_read to read data blocks and blocktable entries until we read

the entire file.

Accesses to the disk with disk_read and disk_write do not have to be block-aligned. Normally on

physical storage devices, a driver has to read a whole sector at a time in 512-byte aligned blocks. We do

not have such a constraint for this assignment, and you are allowed to read, for example, just 2 bytes from

the middle of the block table on disk.

The assignment and grading

This assignment is individual; you are not allowed to work in teams. Submissions should be made to the

submission system before the deadline. Multiple submissions are encouraged to evaluate your submission

on our system. Our system may differ from your local system (e.g., compiler version); points are only given

for features that work on our system.

Your grade will be 1 if you did not submit your work on time, has an invalid format, or has errors during

compilation.

If your submission is valid (on time, in correct format and compiles), your grade starts from 0, and the

following tests determine your grade (in no particular order):

• +1.0pt if you made a valid submission that compiles.

• +0.5pt for implementing the readdir function that works on the root directory. Required

• +1.5pt for implementing functionality to read files in the root directory.

• +1.0pt for supporting subdirectories (for readdir and read).

• +1.0pt for implementing support for mkdir.

• +1.0pt for implementing support for rmdir.

• +1.0pt for implementing support for removing files through unlink.

• +1.0pt for implementing support creating (empty) files.

• +1.5pt for implementing support for truncate to shrink and grow files.

• +2.0pt for implementing support writing to files.

• -1.0pt if gcc -Wall -Wextra reports warnings when compiling your code.

If you do not implement an item marked with Required you cannot obtain any further points.

The grade will be capped at 10, so you do not need to implement all features to get a top grade.

To get an indication of the grade you might get, you can run the automated tests using the command

make check.

Note: Your filesystem driver will be evaluated largely automatically. This means features only get a

positive grade if they work perfectly, and there will be no half grade for "effort".

Notes and hints

• The header file sfs.h should contain all information about the layout of the SFS filesystem for your

code to use. Make sure you understand all constants and types defined in this file.

• Make sure to properly detect error conditions (e.g., a filename that is too long, a directory that is full,

removing a non-empty directory, etc) and return the appropriate error code.

• Remember that the getattr callback lies at the core of most FUSE operations, and you will have to

properly implement it for other functions to work. For example, FUSE will not even bother calling

readdir, read or mkdir if the appropriate (parent) entry is not correctly reported by getattr

• To test getattr separately from the terminal, you can use the stat command (e.g.,

$ stat mnt/foo/bar).

• To test the offset parameter of read manually from the terminal, you can use the dd command.

E.g., $ dd if=mnt/foo/bar bs=1 skip=123, where the skip number is passed as offset to

sfs_read. Similarly for write you can use

$ dd if=somefile of=mnt/foo/bar bs=1 seek=123 count=456, where which will write

count bytes from somefile into mnt/foo/bar at offset seek.

• When doing manual tests with Docker, refer to the setup document on how to open multiple

terminals with the same Docker session.

• Remember that you should check for empty (non-existent) directory entries by looking at the filename

field (e.g., strlen(entry.filename) == 0), not by looking at the size (which can be 0).

• For most functions you will need to start with finding the correct directory entry corresponding to the

path. Especially later when you add support for subdirectories, it is advised to create a reusable

function to do this. You can for example create a function like:

int get_entry(const char *path, struct sfs_entry *ret_entry,

 unsigned *ret_entry_off)

This function would split up the path (using strtok), and recursively walk down the directories. The

result is placed in ret_entry. Additionally, you may want to add an additional return value which

describes where on the disk the returned entry was found, in case you need to modify it and write it

back (e.g., for rmdir or write). For this purpose, in the example above the offset on the disk is

returned via ret_entry_off, but there are multiple ways of doing this. Note that you do not have to

use this function, or can add/change arguments however you want - this is just a hint on how to easily

organize your code.

Troubleshooting

• Everything works fine when testing manually, but the tests all fail: The most common cause is the

randomization of the image layout that the tests use. When creating images for tests, check.py

passes the -r flag to mkfs.sfs, which cause randomization of which blocks to use for files and

directories, and causes directory entries to use random slots (instead of starting at the first entry). To

support this, you have to make sure you walk all directory entries when looking for a path, and you

have to use the blocktbl to find the next block for each file. You can apply this randomization yourself

by also passing the -r flag to mkfs.sfs.

• If your sfs binary crashes FUSE might not properly unmount your directory. In these cases, use the

following command to unmount it: fusermount -u <DIR>

• "Transport endpoint not connected" errors: This happens when your driver (sfs binary) crashed. If you

see this error during the automated tests, try running the ./sfs binary manually and reproduce what

the tests were doing.

• Random "Input/output error" (even when you never return -EIO): In most cases this happens when

you modify the path variable given by FUSE to most functions. This variable is marked as const, and

should not be modified (e.g., using strtok). Make a copy (using strdup) before modifying it.

• "mounting over filesystem type 0x01021997 is forbidden" (on WSL2): The mountpoint (i.e., the

parameter passed to ./sfs) should not be inside the /mnt/c part of the filesystem (the windows

disks, which are mounted -secretly- over the network). Place your mountpoint somewhere in /home

or /tmp instead.

• Slow tests on WSL2 (make check should finish in about 10 seconds): Place all you files outside of

the windows filesystem (/mnt) and instead in the local home directory (/home).

• "fuse: device not found, try 'modprobe fuse' first" (on WSL): You are using WSL1, not WSL2. On

WSL2 FUSE should work out of the box.

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