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Statistics & Analysis
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conducting scientific research to statistically analyse data in the correct manner. Choosing the correct statistical test and being able to analyse, present and interpret data effectively are essential skills for any researche

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
 

Overview

It is essential when conducting scientific research to statistically analyse data in the correct manner. Choosing the correct statistical test and being able to analyse, present and interpret data effectively are essential skills for any researcher.

 

Task

With the data provided (Appendix 1) produce a report assessing the stress response of dogs to time spent in kennels.  Use any of the data in Appendix 1 to test the two hypotheses below:

 

Hypothesis 1

Ho: There is no significant difference in the stress response between dog breeds

 

H1: There is a significant difference in the stress response between dog breeds

 

 

Hypothesis 2

Ho: There is no significant difference in the stress response of dogs that have been handled compared to those that have not been handled

 

H1: There is a significant difference in the stress response of dogs that have been handled compared to those that have not been handled

 

 

You will need to perform at least one statistical test per hypotheses. You can perform more if you choose, using any of the data that you wish to use, this may be all or just some of the data.

 

The report needs to include the following:

 

Abstract: Concise summary of the project, highlighting the key findings. No more than 250 words. Does not require citations.

Introduction: Provides background information and rationale to the study which must include academic references. A sub heading with the Aims, Objectives and Hypotheses should be included.

 

Method: Describe how the experimental design and sampling methods were used to collect the data (you can decide how you would have conducted this research to get the results provided). You may want to reference research design theory to justify your choice of methodology. A paragraph explaining which statistical tests are going to be used to test each hypotheses and why should be included.

Results: Describe the data using both descriptive (descriptive statistics and figures/tables) and a range of appropriate inferential statistical test. There needs to be a minimum of two different inferential statistical tests used. Appropriate graphical representation should be used with each hypotheses.

Discussion: Show interpretation of the results and evaluate these results in relation to other published research. Critically discuss the strengths and limitations of the study and provide ideas for further research.

Conclusion: Give an overall summary of the project.

Appendices: Numbered and placed after the reference list. Include SPSS outputs for the statistical tests conducted. The appendices must be referred to within the results section. The output boxes need to be copied and not screen shots to ensure they are legible. 

 

Learning Outcomes:

  1. Identify, select and apply statistical techniques to analyse data and show interpretation of the results.
  2. Plan a research project, experiment and appropriate data collection.
  3. Present data effectively and professionally using appropriate formats and software packages.
  4. Apply and consider appropriate ethical approaches to research within the selected field of study.

 

Rationale for assessment method chosen – The assessment provides an opportunity for students to plan for their Level 6 dissertation and obtain thorough feedback. The student is able to choose a topic independently and hence, can exhibit originality and decision-making. They will identify and critically review current knowledge, demonstrate understanding and critical awareness of experimental design, sampling strategies and statistical analysis. Key areas for future research will be identified.

 

The ability to design an independent project develops the problem solving and analytical skills required for continuing professional development and employment.

 

Reassessment

Reassessment work will be in the same format as this assignment. A new set of data and a new scenario will be provided.

 

Mark Criteria: Research Design and Statistical Analysis

 

Abstract:

Concise summary of the project, includes clear reference to the methods used, key findings and interpretation of findings.

Introduction:

Wide range of resources used. Clearly relates to research problem, demonstrates evidence of critical analysis, independent and original thought.

Method:

Clear description of the methods, written in third person and past tense. Clear and appropriate use of research design theory which is well applied to the context. Appropriate selection of statistical tests for the hypotheses and data being tested.

Results:

Logical and appropriate analysis, data presented in clear and appropriate format, good use of graphs/figures, good and correct use of statistical analysis. Written description of data provided with patterns in the data described well.

Discussion:

Shows an understanding of the findings and evaluation of the study in light of prior research and research design theory. Shows critical awareness of own and published research. Conclusion is clear and appropriate.

Overall approach:

Consistency as whole, shows clear evidence base for problem, logical flow, awareness of strengths/weaknesses.

Presentation and Structure:

Accurate and consistent application of standard referencing conventions, English, paragraph structure, punctuation and grammar. Well-structured with a good and logical flow.

 


Appendix 1: Data for dogs (Cortisol test (saliva) (nmol/L)  to be used for Assessment.

Breed

Gender

In home environment

After 2 hours in kennel

After being exercised for 30 minutes (4 hours spent at kennels)

After 6 hours in kennels

After being handled for 10 minutes (after 6 hours in the kennels)

Labrador

Female

2.34

7.48

6.12

7.73

4.78

Labrador

Female

1.22

5.02

3.43

7.82

5.43

Labrador

Female

1.01

4.98

2.11

5.45

6.78

Labrador

Female

1.78

5.56

4.68

5.23

5.33

Labrador

Female

2.34

6.56

5.32

6.89

4.23

Labrador

Female

1.11

4.01

5.41

7.89

5.32

Labrador

Female

1.56

4.86

3.46

8.09

5.33

Labrador

Female

1.25

5.34

4.15

7.65

6.22

Labrador

Female

2.55

6.92

7.05

6.66

4.89

Labrador

Female

1.01

3.15

4.31

8.45

4.45

Labrador

Male

1.16

2.32

3.06

5.34

3.54

Labrador

Male

1.32

7.56

6.25

7.54

5.45

Labrador

Male

1.67

3.89

2.65

4.32

3.04

Labrador

Male

2.12

4.45

4.13

7.45

4.55

Labrador

Male

1.45

5.23

4.47

5.78

4.89

Labrador

Male

1.26

4.67

5.33

6.45

4.99

Labrador

Male

1.15

5.45

6.16

7.76

6.54

Labrador

Male

2.46

8.09

7.47

8.89

6.64

Labrador

Male

1.32

4.56

5.23

7.64

4.65

Labrador

Male

1.94

5.32

4.74

7.32

5.22

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.11

6.01

4.01

8.22

5.89

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.54

7.21

5.34

9.45

5.32

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.32

7.89

5.42

10.45

6.32

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.28

8.99

7.38

8.89

7.32

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.67

9.12

7.47

9.55

7.77

Breed

Gender

In home environment

After 2 hours in kennel

After being exercised for 30 minutes (4 hours spent at kennels)

After 6 hours in kennels

After being handled for 10 minutes (after 6 hours in the kennels)

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.17

8.67

7.27

9.78

7.45

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.12

7.58

7.02

8.99

6.67

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.93

3.54

4.39

8.67

4.02

Springer Spaniel

Female

1.54

5.65

5.47

8.54

5.22

Springer Spaniel

Female

2.09

4.22

4.01

8.67

3.21

Springer Spaniel

Male

2.23

6.76

5.12

9.45

6.08

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.56

7.04

6.34

8.43

7.01

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.28

8.22

7.12

9.78

7.67

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.77

9.67

9.54

10.45

8.99

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.65

6.32

8.15

9.54

6.08

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.32

5.98

7.61

8.65

6.07

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.89

6.22

5.27

8.43

6.87

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.32

7.87

5.22

9.89

5.78

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.11

6.54

5.01

9.55

5.56

Springer Spaniel

Male

1.89

9.23

6.59

10.32

6.34

Pointer

Female

1.32

5.45

5.22

6.54

5.33

Pointer

Female

1.02

5.32

5.12

7.65

5.56

Pointer

Female

1.54

6.12

4.34

6.43

5.32

Pointer

Female

1.67

4.45

3.57

7.43

5.65

Pointer

Female

1.32

4.32

2.52

6.66

5.32

Pointer

Female

1.11

5.78

3.31

8.34

6.33

Pointer

Female

1.54

6.32

4.74

4.67

6.78

Pointer

Female

1.23

7.65

5.43

6.32

5.33

Pointer

Female

1.44

5.35

4.64

5.43

4.76

Pointer

Female

2.01

4.45

4.31

4.98

4.44

Pointer

Male

2.11

4.33

4.15

4.44

3.32

Breed

Gender

In home environment

After 2 hours in kennel

After being exercised for 30 minutes (4 hours spent at kennels)

After 6 hours in kennels

After being handled for 10 minutes (after 6 hours in the kennels)

Pointer

Male

1.67

5.56

4.67

6.78

3.67

Pointer

Male

1.45

5.32

4.55

7.88

4.24

Pointer

Male

1.32

4.89

4.38

6.34

4.78

Pointer

Male

1.88

6.54

4.33

5.78

4.22

Pointer

Male

1.31

5.12

4.25

8.44

5.45

Pointer

Male

1.12

5.89

4.78

4.34

3.88

Pointer

Male

2.22

5.87

5.12

6.54

4.32

Pointer

Male

2.98

6.45

5.32

7.43

5.33

Pointer

Male

1.23

4.99

5.04

5.43

4.23

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