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Large power systems are typically subdivided into many smaller areas called loss zones.

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

Large power systems are typically subdivided into many smaller areas called loss zones. The loading information for each loss zone is important since it is used to determine both the current system operational set points and the load trends used to compute future growth. The transmission line information used in calculating loss zone loading is not in standard units, but rather in a converted unit set called per unit (pu). The relationship between actual quantities and per unit quantities is given as A= 4, Apu where Aь is the base value of the quantity and Apu is the per unit value of the quantity. The actual quantity has the same units as the base quantity. The overbar indicates that the quantity is a phasor quantity(a complex number). If the base power and base voltage are known, So then the base current is calculated by I=- where S is the base power and Vь is the base voltage. √3V2 For each transmission line i the complex power is calculated as S, P+jQ, VI, where P; is the active power, Q, is the reactive power, V, is the phasor voltage and I, is the complex conjugate of the phasor current. All quantities in this expression are assumed to be in per unit. The power factor is the ratio of the active power to the magnitude of the complex power. Regardless of the numerical sign, the power factor is always expressed as a positive value with a designation of "lagging" or "leading": if the sign of P, and Q, are the same, then the power factor is lagging, otherwise the power factor is leading. Note: This problem does NOT require subscripted variables (arrays)! Your assignment is to write a standard C program to compute the load information for a series of loss zones. For each loss zone, the input data will include the number of transmission lines entering the zone, a single character identifying the zone, and the base power of the zone in MVA. Following this, information about each transmission line is given and includes the following: the base voltage of the line in kV, the magnitude of the actual line voltage in pu, the phase angle of the line voltage in degrees, the magnitude of the actual line current in pu, and the phase angle of the line current in degrees. Your program must be designed to read this information from a plain ascii text file named cp11110.txt which is assumed to be in your current working directory. A sample file with this name will be available for you to copy from the course website, but we will use a different, similarly constructed and named file when we run your program. No interactive input will be provided!

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