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Python Programming
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Create a function that traverses a string using a while Loop. Do NOT use a for loop.Create a function that reads a text file consisting of natural language and counts the number of words.

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1.1.     Traverse a String Using a while Loop

The following code traverses a string using a for loop:

Create a function that traverses a string using a while Loop. Do NOT use a for loop!

Function name: traverse_string_with_while()

Parameters/arguments: a string

1.2.     Read a Text File: Count Words

Create a function that reads a text file consisting of natural language and counts the number of words. The file to read is titled count_words.txt.

Function name: count_words() Parameters/arguments: a filename Returns: the number of words in the file

TIPS

Algorithm:

  • open file

  • read text contents from file

  • close file

  • break large text (book, chapter, article?) into paragraphs:

text.split('\n')

  • or break large text into sentences:

text.split('.')

text.split('?')

text.split('!')

  • or break large text into words

  • remove tokens that aren’t words

  • count remaining tokens (also known as words)

1.3.     Read a Text File: Count Sentences

Create a function that reads a text file consisting of natural language and counts the number of sentences. The file to read is titled count_sentences.txt.

 

Function name: count_sentences() Parameters/arguments: a  filename Returns: the number of sentences in the file

1.4.     Write To a Text File

Create a function that writes to a text file whatever data the user enters via keyboard. The user will first be asked to give the filename. Keep asking the user to enter data until they type Return without entering text. If the text file already exists then the data en- tered by the user is appended to the existing text file.

The file you will write to will be named write_to_text_file.txt.

 

Function name: create_text_file()

Parameters/arguments: a filename

Returns: 1 if a new text file was created, 0 if an existing text file was appended to

 

TIPS

Algorithm:

  • ask user to input filename (txt)

  • to check if a file already exists use the os module (there are other ways too do this):

import os

file_exists = os.path.exists("test.txt") print("Does file exist?: " + str(file_exists))

  • open file

  • ask user to input text data

  • write user’s text data to file

  • repeat the previous two steps until user is done entering data

  • close file

  • return 1 if a new text file was created, or return 0 if an existing text file was appended to

1.5.     Move A Character In A Video Game

Create a function that moves a character in a video game. You are given the character’s name, its initial x and y positions, and the amount the character will move in the x di- rection and the y direction. Compute the character’s new location in the game.

Function name: move_game_character()

Parameters/arguments: character name, initial x position, initial y position, move- ment in the x direction, movement in the y direction (5 arguments)

Returns: character’s new x & y coordinates after moving

 

1.6.     Recommend a Movie

Create a function that counts how many keywords are similar in a set of movie reviews and recommend the movie with the most similar number of keywords.

The solution to this task will require the use of dictionaries.

The film reviews & keywords are in a file called film_reviews.txt, separated by commas. The first term is the movie name, the remaining terms are the film’s keyword tags (i.e., “amazing", “poetic", “scary", etc.).

Function name: similar_movie()

Parameters/arguments: name of a movie

Returns: a list of movies similar to the movie passed as an argument

 

TIPS

 

Algorithm:

  • open txt file

  • read contents of file

  • close file

  • parse file into a dictionary of the form

{"movie":["keyword1", "keyword2", "keyword3"...]}}

  • get movie’s keywords

  • go through the rest of the movies to see which have the most key- words in common

  • return a list of the movies similar to the movie passed as an argu- ment

 

1.7.     Check Type

Create a function that checks if a variable is of type String.

Function name: check_type_is_string() Parameters/arguments: one variable of any type Returns: True if the variable is a String, False otherwise

 

1.8.     Check If Player Can Buy Items In A Video Game

Create a function that determines whether a video game character has enough money to buy items from a shop. You are given the amount of coins the character has and a dictionary of items the shop has for sale (along with each item’s price).

Determine the items in the shop available for the character to purchase. If no items are available then the function returns None.

Function name: shop_items_player_can_buy()

Parameters/arguments: amount of coins the character has, dictionary of shop items (item names are the dictionary keys, item prices are the dictionary values)

Returns: a list of items in the shop the player can purchase, None if no items can be afforded

TIPS

Algorithm:

  • check how much money player has

  • find all shop items that cost less than or equal to the amount of money the player has

  • display the list of items the player can purchase

 

1.9.     Opinion of A Sentence

Create a function that determines whether a sentence has a positive or negative opin- ion of a topic.

The sentences are read from a file called opinions.txt.

 

Function name: sentence_opinion()

Parameters/arguments: a sentence

Returns: +1 if the sentence expresses positive sentiment or opinion, -1 if the sentence expresses a negative sentiment or opinion, 0 if the sentence is neutral (neither positive or negative)

 

This one requires some thought before we begin even the algorithm:

  • how do we determine whether a sentence is positive or negative about some topic?

  • can we use the words of a sentence to determine if something is positive or negative?

  • does a list of positive & negative words exist?

  • if not, can I quickly make up a list of positive & negative words? List of positive & negative words (example):

positive_words = ["good", "happy", "cool", "fun", "amazing",...]

negative_words = ["bad", "unhappy", "boring", "simple", "yawn",...]

 

Algorithm:

  • find negative words in sentence

  • find positive words in sentence

  • TODO: complete the ..

1.10.     Astronomy

The stars.txt dataset1 consists of temperatures and magnitudes for 7860 nearby stars. The magnitude of stars corresponds to a star’s brightness. A star’s temperature is esti- mated by the color of light the star emits.

 

Write functions that read the stars.txt file and:

  • find the hottest star

  • find the coldest star

  • find the brightest star

  • find the darkest star

 

Function name: find_hottest_star() Parameters/arguments: filename Returns: temperature

 

Function name: find_coldest_star() Parameters/arguments: filename Returns: temperature

 

Function name: find_brightest_star() Parameters/arguments: filename Returns: magnitude

 

Function name: find_darkest_star() Parameters/arguments: filename Returns: magnitude

 

 

TIPS

Algorithm:

  • open txt file

  • read contents of file

  • close file

  • parse file contents into two lists: a list of temperatures and a list of brightness magnitudes

  • find the hottest star from the list of temperatures

  • find the coldest star from the list of temperatures

  • find the brightest star from the list of temperatures

  • find the darkest star from the list of temperatures

 

1.11.     Transform A String

Create a function that takes a string and changes its letters according to a set of rules. For example

This transformation is known as encoding/coding (i.e., encrypting & decrypting).

Function name: transform_string

Parameters/arguments: a string

Returns: a string that has been transformed (encoded)

 

TIPS

Algorithm:

  • get original string

  • create empty new string

  • for each letter of the original string, transform the letter

  • store (append) each transformed letter to the new string

  • return the new string

 

1.12.     Parsing Bioinformatics Data

Create a function that reads bioinformatics data from a file and parses the data, then prints the information in a human-readable format. The file you will read your biose- quence data is ls_orchid.fasta. The file contains 94 sequence records. The sequences in the file are formatted similar to the following:

>gi|129295|sp|P01013|OVAX_CHICK GENE X PROTEIN (OVALBUMIN-RELATED) QIKDLLVSSSTDLDTTLVLVNAIYFKGMWKTAFNAEDTREMPFHVTKQESKPVQMMCMNNSFNVATLPAE KMKILELPFASGDLSMLVLLPDEVSDLERIEKTINFEKLTEWTNPNTMEKRRVKVYLPQMKIEEKYNLTS FLFLIKHNPTNTIVYFGRYWSP

You will format and display the above sequence record to the console screen as follows:

DESCRIPTION:

gi 129295

sp P01013

OVAX_CHICK GENE X PROTEIN (OVALBUMIN-RELATED)

 

SEQUENCE:

QIKDLLVSSSTDLDTTLVLVNAIYFKGMWKTAFNAEDTREMPFHVTKQESKPVQMMCMNNSFNVATLPAE KMKILELPFASGDLSMLVLLPDEVSDLERIEKTINFEKLTEWTNPNTMEKRRVKVYLPQMKIEEKYNLTS FLFLIKHNPTNTIVYFGRYWSP

Some properties of text in FASTA format (see the Appendix FASTA Format for info):

  • a sequence in FASTA format begins with a single-line description (or defline)

  • there is no space between the ">" and the first letter of the sequence description

  • the bar ("|") separates different fields

  • after the definition line are lines of sequence data

  • the definition line (defline) is distinguished from the lines containing sequence data by a greater-than (>) symbol at the beginning of the line

  • all lines of text should be shorter than 80 characters in length

Function name: read_bio_data()

Parameters/arguments: a filename

Returns: a list of sequence records (the above example is one sequence record) For example, executing the following code produces:

 

 

>>> sequence_records = read_bio_data("ls_orchid.fasta")

>>> num_of_sequence_records = len(sequence_records)

>>> print("num_of_sequence_records: " + str(num_of_sequence_records) num_of_sequence_records: 94

 

)

 

Function name: print_bio_data()

Parameters/arguments: one of the records from ls_orchid.fasta

Returns: function displays one sequence record to the screen formatted to improve readability, does not return a value

TIPS 

This is the more complex task since it requires strict adherence to the for- matting of the file. Parsing is the process of taking data and structuring it to improve readability/interpretation/analysis/etc. In this task, the tool you will primarily use is split().

 

String Method

Description

split(’|’)

splits the text at every instance of |

split(’>’)

splits the text at every instance of >

split(’\n\n’)

splits the text at every instance of two carriage returns

Algorithm:

  • open fasta file

  • read contents of file

  • close file

  • parse file into individual records

  • for each record, parse into sequence data & the sequence descrip- tion line

  • for the sequence description line, parse into strings separated by |

  • display the parsed sequence description line

  • display the raw sequence data

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