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COMP 4320 COMPUTER SCIENCES AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING The purpose of this assignment is to implement a Selective Repeat reliable data transfer for Web service over the UDP transport service.

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know Im behind got alot to do at the end of the semester

 

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COMPUTER SCIENCES AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

AUBURN UNVERSITY

COMP 4320

Introduction to Computer Networks

Fall 2021

Project 2

Implementation of a Selective Repeat Reliable Data Transfer for

a Web Service over the UDP Transport Service

 

Objective

The purpose of this assignment is to implement a Selective Repeat reliable data transfer

for Web service over the UDP transport service. Your Selective Repeat protocol must

correctly transmits segments even though the transport layer uses a channel that may

cause some packets to be lost and some packets to contain bit errors. In this project, you

will understand the sliding window protocol better in terms of its flow control and errordetection/correction features. You will implement the Selective Repeat protocol for

ensuring reliability in your Web client and server programs.

Overview

In this project, you will implement a Selective Repeat protocol for ensuring reliable data

transfer for the web client and server applications. As in Project 1, these applications

must be written in C or C++ and execute correctly either in your own computer(s) or in

the COE tux Linux computers. Other related software modules that you will implement

are the segmentation and re-assembly function, an error detection function and a gremlin

function (that can corrupt and lose packets with specified probabilities). The overview of

these software components is show in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Overview of the Selective Repeat Protocol and other Software Components 

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As in the first project, the Web client initiates the communication by sending an HTTP

request to the Web server. This outgoing HTTP request is not processed by the

segmentation and re-assembly, selective repeat protocol, error detection or the Gremlin

function. In this project, you will only enforce reliability in the transfer of data from the

Web server to the client. The HTTP request is sent through the transport UDP datagram

socket to the Web server.

At the Web server host, the HTTP request is also not processed by those functions at the

Web server host. The Web server will then process the request, e.g. GET command, by

reading the file requested by the Web client. Since the requested file may be large, the

server application will use the segmentation function to partition the file into smaller

segments that will fit into a packet of size allowable by the network. Each segment is

then placed into a 512-byte packet that is allowed by the network. Each packet must

contain a header that contains information for the selective repeat protocol, error

detection, segmentation and other protocol information. You may design your own

header fields that are of reasonable sizes. Another field that must be in the header is a

sequence number. The packet is then passed to the selective repeat protocol that will use

the sequence number and acknowledgements to guarantee reliable data transfer. The

packet then passed to the error detection function which, at the server (sending process),

will compute the checksum and place the checksum in the header. The packet is finally

sent via the UDP socket to the Web client.

When the packet is received by the Web client host UDP socket, the packet will be

processed by the Gremlin function which may randomly cause errors in some packets or

lose some packets. This will emulate errors that may be generated by the network links

and routers. The packet is then processed by the error detection function that will detect

possibility of error based on the checksum. The packet is then processed by the selective

repeat protocol by checking the sequence number and process the acknowledgement

accordingly. Correct packets are then passed to the segmentation and re-assembly

function that re-assembles all the segments of the file from the packets received into the

original file. The file is then displayed by the Web client application using a display

software or browser.

Descriptions

The Selective Repeat protocol is a reliable transmission protocol that is fairly efficient.

The main purpose of the protocol is to convert an unreliable channel into a reliable one

by detecting and recovering from errors in the packets as well as lost packets.

You may reuse the functionalities implemented in the first project for segmenting and

reassembling packets, lost and scrambled. The unreliable channel is emulated by the

gremlin function you implemented that will cause some bits in the packets to be flipped

in addition to losing some packets. The middle sub-layer contains the Selective Repeat

protocol that you will implement in this project. The top sub-layer contains the 

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segmentation and re-assembly function you implemented in the first project that will

segment and reassemble the large data segment (file) that is being transmitted.

The Web application programs will transmit the contents of an ASCII data file. The Web

server passes the data in the file to the segmentation and re-assembly module which

breaks the data stream into smaller 512-bytes packets (including the flags and header). It

then sends the first packet to the Web client. The error detection (ED) module generated

and inserts the checksum for error checking. Finally, the Selective Repeat protocol will

send several packets in a pipeline and waits for the acknowledgements from the receiver.

If the sender times out before receiving the ACK or detects an error in a packet, it will

assume that the packets are lost and retransmit the packets.

You will design and implement the Selective Repeat protocol with positive/negative

acknowledgement and retransmission (PAR). You must use the window size, N = 8 for

both the sender and receiver. The sequence number must be modulo 24. Your Web

application will use this Selective Repeat protocol to transmit the contents of an ASCII

data file. The Web server application receive a request from the Web client (e.g. GET)

and reads data from an ASCII file. The SAR function breaks the large messages into

smaller packets. It then sends these packets to the Web client application through the

Selective Repeat protocol. When the client FTP application correctly receives all the

packets in the right order from the server, it will reassemble the file that is transferred.

You will have considerable freedom in designing the service interfaces, the packet-header

formats, and the implementation mechanisms for these protocols.

Selective Repeat Protocol (SR)

You are to design and implement a Selective Repeat protocol where the window sizes for

both the sender and receiver are 8 and the sequence number is modulo 24. Your Selective

Repeat protocol must deal with errors in packets and lost packets.

The Selective Repeat protocol follows the pipeline principle as follows. After the

transmitter sends packet 0, the transmitter then sends seven additional packets into the

channel, optimistic that packet 0 will be received correctly and not require

retransmission. If that turns out to be right, then the ACK for packet 0 will arrive while

the transmitter is still busy sending packets into the channel. Handling of packet 0 will

then be done while the handling of packet 1 and subsequent packets is already underway.

Thus, Selective Repeat pipelines the processing of packets before the completion of

previous packet transmission to keep the channel busy.

In your Selective Repeat protocol, the receiver must handle packet errors and lost packets

the following ways.

1. When the receiver receives a packet, it must use the same Error Detection

algorithm as used by the transmitter to check for checksum for errors. If the

packet is free of error and can be placed in the right order in the receiver's buffer,

it sends back an ACK for this packet to the transmitter. This ACK is sent in a 

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vector along with ACKs and NAKs of 7 other packets, since the receiver window

is 8.

2. When the receiver detects an error in a packet, it must send back a NAK to the

transmitter, in a vector along with ACKs and NAKs of 7 other packets,

ACK and NAK are never lost or damaged by the gremlin process.

For each of the three corresponding cases above, the transmitter must respond as follows:

1. When the transmitter receives an ACK, it must store that information in its buffer.

If the ACKs are for the first few packets in the window, then it must advance its

window forward. For example, after the transmitter with send window [0-7]

transmits packets 0 to 7, it receives a vector with ACKs for packet 0 and packet 2.

Then the transmitter must advance its send window to [1-8] and sends the new

packet 8.

2. When the transmitter receives a NAK with sequence number 1 and 3, it will

retransmit packets [1,3]. A NAK with sequence number 1 indicates that the

receiver has not received packet 1 correctly but may still accept all subsequent

packets.

3. When the receiver does not send back either an ACK or NAK, then the

transmitter will timeout on the earliest packet that has not been ACKed, e.g.

packet 1 timeouts. It then retransmits only packet 1.

There is an interesting interaction between responses 1, 2 and 3 above. For example, if

the transmitter timeouts and is in the process of retransmitting a window size of packets

and a new ACK arrives. A simpler implementation is to complete the retransmission of

those packets first before servicing the receiving of the ACK. Although this

implementation is simpler, it is inefficient because the incoming ACK may indicate that

the receiver has received some of the packets that are being retransmitted. A more

efficient implementation is to cause the incoming ACK to interrupt the retransmission

and the transmitter can then avoid retransmitting those packets that are being ACKed.

Although the second method is more efficient, it is also more difficult to implement and

the saving in efficiency may not be worth the complexity. In this project, you may choose

either implementation.

When the sender receives a NAK with sequence number n, it must stop the timer and

immediately retransmit packet n. It also updates all the other software timers.

For each packet transmitted, the timeout value must not be more than four times the

round trip time. If you assume the round trip time to be typically about 5 millisec, then

the timeout value should not be more than 20 millisec.

Each packet should also have a checksum inserted into a pre-specified position in the

packet. The sender computes the values of the checksum and inserts them into the packet.

The receiver uses the same algorithm to check the checksum values. You can use any

algorithm to check for error, so long as the receiver and sender use the same algorithm. If 

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the client detects an error in the packet, it must print out in its output trace that the

packet has errors with the packet sequence number.

The packet header should contain a one-byte sequence number. As each data packet is

composed, the sending process sends it to the receiving process using UDP. When the

client receives packets, it must check the sequence number of the packets to make sure

that the sequence number is within the receive window. It prints the sequence number

in the output trace and indicates if there are lost packets or corrupted packets.

Gremlin Function

Your program must allow the probability of damaged and lost packets to be input as

arguments when the program is executed. This packet damage and lost probabilities is

passed to your Gremlin function. You will implement a gremlin function to simulate

three possible scenarios in the transmission line: transmission error that cause packet

corruption, packet loss and correct delivery. When the receiving process receives each

packet, it first pass the packet to a gremlin function which will randomly determine

whether to change (corrupt) some of the bits or pass the packet as it is to the receiving

function. It will also decide whether some packets will be dropped based on the loss

probability. The gremlin function uses a random-number generator to determine whether

to damage a packet or pass the packet as it is to the receiving function.

 

If the gremlin decides to lose a packet, then the client’s selective repeat protocol will not

send an ACK back to the server. For example, a packet’s loss probability of 0.2 means

that two out of ten packets are dropped.

If it decides to damage a packet, it will decide on how many and which byte to change.

The probability that a given packet will be damaged, P(d), is entered as an argument at

runtime. If the probability of damaging a packet is .3, then three out of every ten packets

will be damaged. If the packet is to be damaged, the probability of changing one byte is

.5, the probability of changing two bytes is .3, and the probability of changing 3 bytes is

.2. Every byte in the packet is equally likely to be damaged. The packet is then passed

from the gremlin function to the error detection function that will check for errors in the

packet.

Error Detection Function

The sending process, e.g. the Web Server, will compute the checksum for the packet that

is to be sent. The checksum is calculated by simply summing all the bytes in the packet.

The checksum is then inserted into the checksum header field of the packet.

The receiving process, e.g. the Web client, will then use the same algorithm for

computing the checksum that the sending process used. It will calculate the checksum by

summing all the bytes in the received packet. It then compares the computed checksum

with the checksum received in the packet. If the two checksums match, then it assumes

that there is no error, otherwise there is at least an error in the packet. 

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When the receiving process detects an error in a packet, it will print out a message

indicating the packet’s sequence number and that there is an error in the packet.

In this project, the receiver of your selective repeat protocol will handle errors in packets

by sending a NAK packet with the sequence number. The sender will then retransmit the

packets that were NAKed.

Testing

To test the selective repeat protocol, integrate it into your simple Web service, with the

segmentation and re-assembly, error detection and gremlin functions, implemented in the

first project. Your programs must execute correctly in your own computer or in our

College of Engineering tux Linux computers. In both cases, all communication between

the client and the server must be through the socket API with real IP addresses, i.e. you

cannot use the 127 loopback IP addresses, e.g. 127.0.0.1. Your computer must be

connected to the Internet and you must be able to find the real IP address assigned to

your computer. Use that real IP address for creating your sockets and for all

communication between the client and the server.

If you use Auburn University’s tux Linux workstations you should use different tux

Linux computers for the client and the server processes. The tux computers that are

available for you use through remote access are tux050-tux065 and tux237-tux252.

Altogether, there are 32 tux machines. If you are using the tux computers, send me email

with all your group members and I’ll assign to you open port numbers for the tux

computers so that you can avoid interfering with each other’s message transmission.

Implement the client program so that it will send a HTTP request to a simple Web server

to retrieve a data file. The server will send HTTP response messages in 512-byte packets

until the end of the file (see below). Add print statements in the client program to indicate

that it is sending and receiving the packets correctly, i.e. print the messages that it sends

and receives. The server program responds to clients' HTTP requests. The server

constructs HTTP response messages by putting header lines before the object itself that is

to be sent. The server reads the requested HTML file (an ASCII file, must be at least 64

Kbytes), put them in a buffer and sends the content of the buffer to the Web client who

made the request. The HTTP response messages are sent in 512-byte packets until the

end of the file. At the end of the file, it transmits 1 byte (NULL character) that indicates

the end of the file. It will then close the file. Add print statements in the server program

to indicate that it is receiving and sending the packets correctly, i.e. print the messages

that it receives and sends.

Run the modified UDP C/C++ client and UDP C/C++ server programs with the Selective

Repeat protocol for reliable data transfer. Other software, such as the segmentation and

re-assembly, error detection and gremlin functions must also function correctly. The

C/C++ client and server program must execute on different tux Linux computers if you

are using the COE tux Linux computers. If you are using your own computer, you can

execute both the C/C++ client and server program on the same computer but using 

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different port numbers. Capture the execution trace of the programs. In Linux, use the

script command to capture the trace of the execution of the UDP C/C++ client and

UDP C/C++ server programs. The trace must contain information when data packets and

ACK/NAK are sent or received, which packets are corrupted, and when packets are lost.

Sequence numbers and other relevant information on the packets must be printed.

Print the content of the input file read by the server program and the output file received

by the client program.

Submission

Submit your source codes and the script of the execution traces of the programs, the file

that was sent by the server and the file that was received by the client. Submit these in

Canvas on or before the due date. 

(5/5)
Attachments:

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