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Anatomy learning is one of the most prominent and crucial subjects of biology and medical education.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Problem Statement and Motivation

Anatomy learning is one of the most prominent and crucial subjects of biology and medical education. In earlier years, students’ main learning method of human anatomy is using traditional learning materials with 2D images with help of 3D human anatomy mannequin in the classroom. However, students have transitioned from face-to-face classes to online classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studying from home caused the students no longer access to the 3D mannequin in biology lab. Hence, the motivation to develop this application is to provide an easily-access 3D human anatomy model in AR mode to students for effective learning. The following problems further increase the necessity of AR application using 3D reconstruction on medical image

I. Ineffective study on human anatomy in education system.

 

Human Anatomy learning is too complex to view and learn in graphical 2D images. During the time of in-person classes, students can still learn from the 3D mannequin in classroom with references to the 2D images on textbook under the supervision of teachers. However, during Covid-19 pandemic, students have been attending the online classes for a long period of time. As online class consideration is believed equal or superior to in-person learning, there might be high possibility that online education becomes one of the main education methods even though after the pandemic. The viewing of human anatomy by students through flat 2D screen on their devices is confusing and challenging.

II. Lack of reality and accurateness in existing 3D human anatomy applications.

 

The existing applications for 3D human anatomy learning are mostly developed by the 3D reconstruction of images that drawn in graphical design software and might have the differences with real human anatomy. Also, the 3D model that displayed in device screen looks virtual. Hence, the accurateness and sense of reality in displaying 3D human anatomy need to be modified and improved for better visualization.

III. Lack of interest and motivation towards traditional academic practices in student perspective.

The growing distance between students’ technological way of life and the traditional teaching procedures has caused the students to loss their willingness and motivations towards the lesson.

 

The images of complex human anatomy in textbooks are unattractive towards the students, and the difficulty in understanding human anatomy in 2D contributes to the loss of motivation. This situation would then affect students’ academic performance negatively.

1.2 Project Scope

In this project, a marker-based Augmented Reality (AR) application will be built for 3D visualization of upper parts of digestive system including oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, and salivary glands. Also, a quiz game module and information gallery module will be built to enhance user’s knowledge on human anatomy. The AR application is prototyped for mobile devices to support portability and the dataset being used in this project is CT dataset.

This application is mainly developed for the biology subjects educators and for secondary or foundations students especially those who are taking biology or medical subject to enhance human anatomical knowledge. The proposed methodology in this project is applying 3D reconstruction on CT medical image which segmented using 3D Slicer and display the 3D anatomy object in AR using Unity with Vuforia SDK.

Firstly, the open-source 3D Slicer application will be used to process the raw CT data. The data is then undergone adjustment to increase the quality of image. After that, the next step to be applied is segmentation and 3D volume rendering, which is the major step to export the 3D model to Unity for visualization. Then, the application is developed with AR technology that can provide interactive function with user such as zoom in, turn around etc. At the same time, a quiz game module will be developed in C# script using the Unity Canvas with extension to Microsoft Visual Studio and being combined with the AR module.

After the application successfully developed, the users able to scan the marker through mobile device camera. Once the application successfully recognizes the marker, a 3D view of human anatomy will be display on the screen. Besides, users can play a quiz game by select the quiz game option in main menu or learn more about digestive system by reading the materials in information gallery.

 

1.3 Objectives

The main objective of this project is to display upper parts of digestive system anatomy in 3D from a dedicated CT using AR technology. Following are the sub-objectives that support the main objective.

I. To promote effective learning in human anatomy by providing a 3D anatomy that can be easily access by the students and educators anytime and anywhere. It can be a reference to the students when they are studying human anatomy in printed or online resources, or for the teachers to better explain human anatomy during online classes.

II. To increase the reality and accurateness of 3D human anatomy by applying 3D reconstruction of CT using AR to replace the normal 3D model of human anatomy which developed using graphical software. AR provide a real-time environment which increase the reality while 3D reconstruction of CT increases the accurateness of the model.

III. To increase student’s motivation and interest in human anatomy learning by providing an interactive anatomy model in AR mode which enable the student to play around and adding a quiz game module into AR application for fun and attractive learning.

 

1.4 Impact, Significance and Contribution

This AR application promotes an effective education method on human anatomy. With the use of this application, an educator can better explain the complex human anatomy to the students by showing the high reality 3D anatomy model during online classes. Also, the students can easily access to the model in AR on their mobile devices, which is really convenience in compared to carrying the thin textbook everywhere.

Besides that, this application allows the interaction between students and the anatomy in AR. Students can feel, touch and play around the model with fingertips, and this will increase the students’ interest towards human anatomy learning. The quiz game developed in this application serves the same purpose which enhance users’ knowledge on human anatomy in an alternative fun and interesting way.

Moreover, the application of AR technology in education system is new and fresh to the students, this might cause their curiosity in exploring this new technology. Thus, the willingness and motivation to study human anatomy can be gained.

 

 

1.5 Background Information

1.5.1 Digestive System

Digestive system is a human body anatomy where the whole digestion process is carried out. Digestive system responsible in providing nutrients to the body for energy in undergoing daily life, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system is a complex system and can be mainly divided into three parts. The upper part of digestive system consists of oral cavity, tongue, Esophagus, pharynx and salivary glands. The middle part of digestive system involved liver, stomach, pancreas and gallbladder, while the lower part of digestive system included large intestine, small intestine, rectum, anus and appendix.

 

 

1.5.2 Medical Imaging

Medical imaging is techniques used to capture human body parts images for diagnostic and/or treatment purposes. There are several types of popular medical imaging widely used today such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), X-ray and positron emission tomography (PET),

 

 

 

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