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Tips on How to do object-oriented Programming (OOP) in C and C++

Here in this blog, CodeAvail experts will explain to you tips on how to do object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++ in detail.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in C and C++

Object-Oriented Programming is a method of taking care of complex issues by breaking them into small utilizing objects. Before Object Oriented Programming (normally alluded to as OOP), programs were written in a procedural language.

Before there was only a long list of instructions but then, the OOP is all about making objects that can interface with one another. This makes it simpler to create programs in OOP as we can comprehend the connection between them and that is why we need to use object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++.

Programming languages like C, C++, and Java have built-in support for OOP ideas. Nonetheless, did you realize that you don’t have to utilize an OOP language?. So as to utilize the OOP style and to get advantages of Object-Oriented programming. If you have never realized thins then.

In this blog, we will clarify how we can bring some of the methods of Object-Oriented programming to C and C++, a language without built-in OOP support. So, now you already know that in C and C++ there is no OOP support, and in order to get that support, you need to use some methods. And we are writing this blog to share those methods with you. 

Object-Oriented Programming(OOP) 

In Object-Oriented programming, we compose programs utilizing classes and objects using highlights of OOPs. For example, abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. As the name recommends that the object-oriented programming utilizes objects in programming.

Object-Oriented programming expects to actualize genuine elements like inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, and so forth in programming. The principle point of OOP is to tie together the Data and the functions that work on them with the goal that no other piece of the code can get to this Data aside from that work. 

So, this was all about OOP that is Object-oriented Programming and you must have a brief idea by now. But in order to use object-oriented programming in c and c++ you need to learn a few more things. And after learning those methods you will totally learn everything about OOP in C and C++. 

So, the methods of doing that are as follows:- 

Class and Objects 

A class resembles a diagram of Data individuals and individual functions and an object we can say is an instance of the class. For instance, suppose we have a class Car that has Data individuals factors. For example, speed, weight, cost, and the functions will be, for example, gearChange(), slowDown(), brake(), and so on. 

Presently suppose We make an object of this class named Honda Civic which utilizes these Data individuals and functions and gives them its own qualities. Additionally, we can make the same number of objects as we need to utilize the class. 

The structured square of C++ that prompts Object-Oriented writing computer programs is a Class. It is a client characterized Data type, which holds its own Data individuals and part works, which can be accessed and utilized by making a case of that class. A class resembles a plan for the objects in it.

For Example:

Consider a Class of Cars. There might be numerous vehicles with various names and brands yet every one of them will share some normal properties which are there present. In every type of car like every one of them will have 4 wheels, Speed Limit, Mileage or god knows whatever. So here, in this case, the class is and its properties are its wheels, speed limits, mileage, and much more.

Class:-

A class is a user-defined Data type that has a Data individual. Data individuals are the Data factors and member functions are the functions used to control these factors and together these Data individuals. And functions characterize the properties and conduct of the objects in a Class. 

In the above case of class Car, the Data part will be speed limit, mileage, and so on, and part functions can apply brakes, speed up, and so on. We can say that a Class in C++ is an outline speaking to a gathering of objects that share some normal properties and practices. 

Object:

An Object is a recognizable entity with certain attributes and manner. An Object is an example of a Class. At the point when a class is characterized, no memory is distributed yet when it is started up (for example an object is made) memory is designated to it, in order to store something.

The object occupies a room in memory and has a related location like a record in pascal or structure or association in C. At the point when a program is executed the objects connect to each other by sending messages to each other.

Each object contains data and code to control the Data. Objects can associate without knowing delicacies or the details of another data or code. It is sufficient to know the sort of message approved and kind of reaction returned by the objects. 

Code Example:- 

//Class name is Car

class Car

{

    //Data members

    char name[20];

    int speed;

    int weight;

public:

    //Functions

    void brake(){

    }

    void slowDown(){

    }

};

int main()

{

   //ford is an object

   Car ford; 

}

Abstraction

Abstraction is a procedure of concealing unessential details from the client or we can say the user in this case. For instance, When you send an SMS you simply type the message, select the contact, and just directly send you to message to another person or device. 

The mobile shows you that the message has been sent, what really occurs out of sight when you click send is hidden from you as it isn’t relevant to you. So, that is what abstraction is, to hide the irrelevant data front he user is called Abstraction.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is a procedure of consolidating Data and function into a solitary unit like a Capsule. This is to stay away from the access of private Data individuals from outside the class.

To accomplish Encapsulation, we make all Data individuals from class private and make open functions that are the public functions. And by utilizing them we can get the qualities from these Data individuals or set the incentive to these Data members.

So, in easy language, we can say that the Encapsulation is when we wrap up our data and information in a unit. And that unit is similar to a capsule, then that is called the Encapsulation.

In ordinary terms, Encapsulation is characterized as wrapping up of Data and data under a solitary unit. In Object-Oriented Programming, Encapsulation is characterized as restricting together the Data and the functions that control them. 

Now we have defined this to you in many ways. You must have learned it by now.

Consider a genuine case of the encapsulation, in an organization, there are various areas like the accounts section, the finances, sales, and so forth. The finance section handles all the budgetary exchanges and tracks all the data identified with the account. So, this was an example of encapsulation in which the data and the function are wrapped in a capsule. 

Encapsulation additionally prompts Data abstraction or hiding away. Utilizing Encapsulation additionally hide the Data.

Inheritance:-

Inheritance is a feature of the OOP in which an object of child class gains all the properties of the parent class. The ability of a class to get properties and qualities from another class is called Inheritance.

The class which gets the properties is the child class and the class from which it gets the properties is called the parent class. Inheritance is one of the most significant highlights of Object-Oriented Programming.

Sub Class:

The class that acquires properties from another class is called Subclass or Derived Class. It can get the properties fro the other classes and then it can use those properties.

Super Class:

The class whose properties are acquired by a subclass is called Base Class or Superclass.  From which class the properties are acquired those are the Super Classes. 

Code Example:- 

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class ParentClass {

  //data member

  public:

    int var1 =100;

};

class ChildClass: public ParentClass {

  public:

  int var2 = 500;

};

int main(void) {

  ChildClass obj;

}

Reusability:

Inheritance focuses or we can say that it always supports the idea of “reusability”. For example at the point when we need to take another class and there is as of now a class that incorporates. And it includes a portion of the code that we need, we can get our new class from that current class. By doing this, we are reusing the fields and techniques for the current class. And that is what is known as Reusability.

Dynamic Binding:

In this that is in the Dynamic Building, the code to be executed in light of the capacity call is chosen at the time of runtime. C++ has virtual functions to help this. And to support this and that is what Dynamic Binding is. 

Message Passing:

Objects deliver messaged or communicate with each other by sending and getting data to one another. A message for an object is a request for the execution of a technique and thusly will use a function in the accepting object that produces the ideal outcomes.

Message passing includes determining the name of the object, the name of the function that is getting used, and the data to be sent. So this was Message Passing which is used in object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++.

Polymorphism 

Function Overloading and Operator over-burdening are instances of polymorphism. This means when a function or the operators are overburdened or overloaded at that time it is known as Polymorphism. Polymorphism is a feature that an object carries on distinctively in an alternate circumstance. 

In function Overloading, we can have more than one function with a similar name however various numbers, type, or grouping of contentions or any sequence of arguments if required. 

The word polymorphism implies having numerous structures. In basic terms, we can characterize polymorphism as the capacity of a message to be shown in more than one structure. 

Code Example:- 

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class Sum {

  public:

    int add(int num1,int num2){

      return num1 + num2;

    }

    int add(int num1, int num2, int num3){

      return num1 + num2 + num3;

    }

};

int main(void) {

   //Object of class Sum

   Sum obj;

   //This will call the second add function

   cout<<obj.add(10, 20, 30)<<endl;

   //This will call the first add function

   cout<<obj.add(11, 22);

   return 0;

}

Here, output will be; 

60

33

An individual simultaneously can have various attributes. Like a man simultaneously is a dad, a spouse, and a father too. So similar individuals possess various types of functions for everyone and that too in various circumstances. This is called polymorphism. 

And one more thing which you should keep in mind is that the C++ supports Operator Overloading. And Function Overloading and now you must be things that are these terms. So to just give you an idea; 

Operator Overloading:

The way toward making an operator show various types of behaviors in various occurrences is known as administrator over-burdening. 

Function Overloading:

Function overloading is utilizing a solitary function name to perform various sorts of tasks to it. So, this was Function Overloading. 

And one more thing to always keep in mind is that Polymorphism is widely utilized in actualizing and implementing inheritance in you code. 

Now, all you need to do is to start using these methods and you will surely know more about object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++.

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Conclusion: object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++

So, this was all about our topic; object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++. We hope that you have learned something from this and if so then share this with your friends. And let them know about object-oriented programming (OOP) in C and C++.

As a result, if you want any programming assignment help at an affordable price.

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