Kotlin is a new language that has been introduced in the last few years. Large numbers of people don’t know about these languages. But google officially launched this language for Android applications.
If you want to know the difference between “Java vs Kotlin.” Then you have come to the right place to find the answer.
Here we will explain the difference between the two programming languages in an easy and most simplest way. At the end of this blog all your doubts will be cleared regarding both programming languages.
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What is Java?
Table of Contents
Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers write once and run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without recompilation. Java is one of the most popular programming languages, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.
What is Kotlin?
JetBrains first introduced it in 2011. Kotlin is an open-source, general-purpose, statically typed programming language for the JVM and Android.
It combines object-oriented and functional programming features.
This has resulted in world-class IDEs such as IntelliJ IDEA, PHPstorm, AppCode, and others.
In 2017, Google sponsored it and announced it. It is one of the official languages for Android development.
It is fully interoperable with Java and Android and was designed to improve upon some of the shortcomings of Java. It’s open source and developed by JetBrains and Google.
Kotlin’s design encourages developers to write safer, more readable code while trying to keep as much compatibility as possible with Java to ease the transition. Some main features are null safety, data classes, extension functions, lambdas, and coroutines.
Kotlin is officially supported by Google for Android development and has been gaining popularity over the past few years among the Android developer community.
It’s been increasingly adopted by companies and Android app development projects worldwide. Many features make it more concise and expressive, and it can help improve performance and reduce the amount of code to be written.
Here are the features of “JAVA and Kotlin.”
Both languages take care of many features, which makes them different from each other. We will explain them one by one. Let’s start with JAVA.
JAVA Key Features
Java is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. Some of its key features include
Java is based on the concepts of objects and classes, which are used to define the properties and methods of a data structure.
Java code can be run on various hardware and software platforms, including Windows, Mac, and Linux, without modification.
Java supports the ability to write programs that can perform multiple tasks at the same time.
Automatic memory management
Java uses a garbage collection feature to automatically manage the allocation and deallocation of memory, which helps prevent memory leaks.
Java has an extensive set of libraries, making it easy to perform common tasks such as reading and writing to files, connecting to a network, and creating graphical user interfaces.
Java is designed to be secure and to provide a high level of protection against malicious code, such as viruses and other malware.
Java provides a type-safe language so that all the operations are type checked at compile time.
Dynamic and Extensible
Java is designed to be extensible and dynamic so that new objects can be added to a running program, and it can be used to create a wide variety of applications.
Java programming language allows concurrency through Threads, locks, and other built-in libraries.
Key Features of Kotlin programming languages
Kotlin is a cross-platform, statically-typed, general-purpose programming language. Some of its key features include
Kotlin code is often more concise than equivalent Java code, making it easier to read and maintain.
Kotlin is fully interoperable with Java, which means that Java and Kotlin code can be used together in the same project.
Kotlin has built-in null safety features, which help prevent null pointer exceptions and make the code more stable and secure.
Higher-order functions and Lambdas
Kotlin supports higher-order functions and Lambdas, which allow you to pass functions as arguments to other functions and can make the code more expressive and easier to understand.
Kotlin provides extension functions that allow the extension of the functionality of classes without having to inherit from them, it can be used to add methods to classes that are not part of the standard library, making the code more reusable.
Kotlin supports data classes, which are designed to hold data, and typically include no additional functionality.
Kotlin can infer the type of a variable, which means that you don’t always have to specify it explicitly, making the code more readable.
Kotlin provides a powerful mechanism called coroutines that allows you to write asynchronous, non-blocking code in a way that is similar to synchronous code, making it more readable and less error-prone.
Kotlin can be used to build applications for the web, Android, iOS, Windows, Linux, and macOS.
Kotlin code can easily coexist with Java code in the same project and allows developers to migrate to Kotlin slowly.
|Features||JAVA Language||Features||Kotlin Language|
|Object-oriented||Java is based on the concepts of objects and classes, which are used to define the properties and methods of a data structure.||Concise||Kotlin code is often more concise than equivalent Java code, making it easier to read and maintain.|
|Platform-independent||Java code can be run on various hardware and software platforms, including Windows, Mac, and Linux, without modification.||Interoperable||Kotlin is fully interoperable with Java, which means that Java and Kotlin code can be used together in the same project.|
|Multi-threaded||Java supports the ability to write programs that can perform multiple tasks at the same time.||Null safety||Kotlin has built-in null safety features, which help prevent null pointer exceptions and make the code more stable and secure.|
|Automatic memory management||Java uses a garbage collection feature to automatically manage the allocation and deallocation of memory, which helps prevent memory leaks.||Higher-order functions and Lambdas||Kotlin supports higher-order functions and Lambdas, which allow you to pass functions as arguments to other functions and can make the code more expressive and easier to understand.|
|Rich libraries||Java has an extensive set of libraries, making it easy to perform common tasks such as reading and writing files, connecting to a network, and creating graphical user interfaces.||Extension functions||Kotlin provides extension functions that allow the extension of the functionality of classes without having to inherit from them, it can be used to add methods to classes that are not part of the standard library, making the code more reusable.|
|Security||Java is designed to be secure and to provide a high level of protection against malicious code, such as viruses and other malware.||Data classes||Kotlin supports data classes, which are designed to hold data, and typically include no additional functionality.|
|Type-safe||Java provides a type-safe language so that all the operations are type checked at compile time.||Type inference||Kotlin can infer the type of a variable, which means that you Don’t always have to specify it explicitly, making the code more readable.|
|Dynamic and Extensible||Java is designed to be extensible and dynamic so that new objects can be added to a running program, and it can be used to create a wide variety of applications.||Coroutines||Kotlin provides a powerful mechanism called coroutines that allows you to write asynchronous, non-blocking code in a way that is similar to synchronous code, making it more readable and less error-prone.|
|Concurrent||Java programming language allows concurrency through Threads, locks, and other built-in libraries.||Multi-platform||Kotlin can be used to build applications for the web, Android, iOS, Windows, Linux, and macOS.|
|Gradual Migration||Kotlin code can easily coexist with Java code in the same project and allows developers to migrate to kotlin slowly.|
JAVA carries many advantages and disadvantages. Let’s start to talk.
Also read: Easiest Programming Language
Java has several advantages, including
Java programs can run on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed, making it highly portable.
Java is a pure object-oriented programming language that provides a clear structure for organizing and defining the responsibilities of objects.
Large class library
Java has a large and well-documented class library that provides many useful functions, including input/output, networking, and graphical user interface (GUI) development.
Java has built-in security features that help protect users from malicious software and viruses.
Automatic memory management
Java’s automatic garbage collector helps ensure that the program doesn’t run out of memory by freeing up memory space used by objects that are no longer needed.
Java provides built-in support for multithreading, which makes it easy to develop concurrent, high-performance applications.
Java is a high-level language, which means it is closer to human languages and farther from machine languages.
Open source and actively maintained
Java is an open-source platform, and the community continuously improves the language and tools.
Java also has some disadvantages, including
Java can be slower than natively compiled languages like C or C++, particularly when it comes to tasks that require a lot of memory or processor time.
Java’s automatic memory management can make it difficult to control how objects are allocated and released in memory, leading to potential performance issues.
Java’s syntax can be verbose and requires more lines of code to accomplish the same task as a language like Python.
Lack of templates
Java does not support templates, which are a feature of C++ that allows developers to write generic code that can work with multiple types.
Limited support for functional programming
Java is an object-oriented language and not as well-suited to functional programming as other languages like Scala or Haskell.
Limited support for operator overloading
Java does not support operator overloading, a feature that allows developers to redefine the behavior of operators for different types.
Limited support for unsigned types
Java does not provide support for unsigned types, this may limit the type of algorithm or implementation you can use in your program.
The size of the executable
Java files are typically larger than the equivalent C++ or C files, as it needs a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to run the code, this increases the size of the executable.
Kotlin is a modern programming language for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that was first introduced in 2011. It has several advantages, including
Interoperability with Java
Kotlin is fully interoperable with Java, which means you can use existing Java code in a Kotlin project and vice versa.
Kotlin’s syntax is designed to be more concise than Java’s, making it easier to write and read code.
Improved type inference
Kotlin has improved type inference, which means that the compiler can automatically infer the type of a variable based on its initial value, reducing the amount of explicit type information that needs to be provided.
Better support for functional programming
Kotlin provides first-class support for functional programming constructs like lambdas, higher-order functions, and a more expressive type system.
Kotlin provides null safety features that help prevent null pointer exceptions, which are a common source of bugs in Java programs.
Enhanced type system
Kotlin has an enhanced type system that allows for better control over nullability and immutability, which can lead to fewer runtime errors.
Improved Error handling
Kotlin introduced ‘sealed classes’ and ‘exception handling’ that allows handling exceptions more effectively and in an organized manner.
Provide Extension functions
Kotlin provides the feature of Extension functions that allows adding new functionalities to existing classes without modifying them.
Open-source & Actively Maintained
Kotlin is Open source and Actively Maintained by JetBrains and the community.
Like any programming language, Kotlin has some disadvantages, including
While the syntax of Kotlin is designed to be more concise and intuitive than Java’s, it may still take some time for developers to learn and become proficient in the language.
Kotlin is a relatively new programming language, and its community is smaller compared to other more established languages like Java and Python.
Limited IDE support
While support for Kotlin in IDEs has greatly improved in recent years, there are still some limitations in terms of the level of integration with certain IDEs.
Smaller library ecosystem
Since Kotlin is a relatively new language, its library ecosystem is still smaller compared to more established languages like Java and Python, which may make it harder to find pre-existing libraries that can be easily integrated into a project.
Limited backward compatibility
Some of the new features of Kotlin require the latest version of the JVM, this may only sometimes be possible to update in certain environments.
Since Kotlin is relatively new, only a few developers have experience with it, which may make it harder to find experienced Kotlin developers for your project.
The steep learning curve for developers familiar with other languages
As Kotlin syntax may differ from those familiar with other languages, it may require more time and effort to get used to the new language
Potentially longer build times
Since Kotlin compiles down to Java bytecode, it may take longer to build and run, as compared to directly running JVM languages like Java and Scala.
The major 10 differences between “JAVA VS Kotlin”
Here are the major 10 differences between JAVA and Kotlin that you should know:
|1||Speed||Java is 20% more fast than Kotlin||Kotlin is 15-20% slow in Compilation|
|2||Null Pointer Exception||Java has nullpointerException||Kotlin avoids nullpointerException|
|3||Extension Function||Java does not support Extension Functions||Kotlin supports Extension Functions|
|4||Casting||Java uses Manual Casting||Kotin uses Smart Casting|
|5||Checked Exception||Java had checked the Exception||Kotlin eliminated checked exceptions|
|6||Language Type||Java Purely Procedural||Functional and Procedural|
|7||Data Types||Manual Variable datatype handling||Automatic Variable Datatype handling|
|8||Getter and Setter||Programmer will take care of getter, and setter||Compiler will take care of getter and setter|
|9||Uses||Java web applications, Scientific Applications, Software Tools, Big Data||Mobile Applications, Server-side and client-side, Data Science|
|10||File Extensions||The file extensions used by Java are.java (for source files),.class (for class files), and.jar (for archived files).||The file extensions used by Kotlin are .kt (for Kotlin source files), .kts (for Kotlin script files), and .ktm (for Kotlin module)|
We have discussed “Java vs Kotlin” and its most important details. We hope this is a proper guide about Java and Kotlin. They will help you make your decision because you can understand all (Advantages, disadvantages, features, and both language differences) about both languages in this article.