Get Best Knowledge Of Data Structures And Algorithms In Java

Are you a Java Programmer and looking for the use of data structures and algorithms in your software development? or any Java Help

You come to the right place because we will provide you the full description of data structure and algorithms in java so that you can use the data in an effective manner, but before that, you should know the basic knowledge of data structure and algorithms.

What is Data Structure?

As the name suggests, “data structure” is all about the arrangement of data in the memory. The data structure is not any programming language such as java, python, C, and C++; it is the way to store the data programmatically so that a java programmer can effectively use it. Data structure and algorithms in java are crucial because data is organized in a structured manner, and algorithms are used to manage this data in those structures. The data structure is a set of algorithms to store the data and manipulate it in the structure effectively.

Types of Data Structure 

There are two types of data structure that can be used in java programming.

  1. Primitive Data Structure
  2. Non-Primitive Data Structure

Primitive Data Structure-

Primitive Data Structures are the basic data structures that directly operate upon the machine instructions. These are predefined types of data and are supported by programming language. In other words, we can say that these are the building blocks for data management and values in primitive data structures inserted by the programmer.

Examples of Primitive Data Structure

Integer – It is numeric data representation, especially whole numbers are stored in the integer data type. The whole numbers can be positive, negative and 0 but not fractional. Integers are used to reveal the location of an item in an array.

Float –When the programmer has to use fractional numbers, the programmer needs to use the float data type. To increase the range of fractional digits, Double can be used. 

Character – It is used to store both upper and lower case of the single word character, for instance, ‘A’ and ‘a’.

Pointer- These are used to store the location of the values that are stored in the memory.

Non-primitive data structures-

Non-primitive data structures are highly used and developed with the help of primitive data structures. These data structures are more complex than the primitive data structure. Non-primitive data structures are further classified into linear and non-linear data structures.

Linear Data Types-They store the data inside the memory in a linear form or in a series. For example, you need to restore the data, then you need to start from the first place, and you can get the whole data in order or one after another. There are different types of Linear Data Structure-

To understand the data structures and algorithms in java it is imperative to know all the terms.

Array- An array data structure is usually used in many algorithms. It is the collection of elements stored sequentially in the memory. In simple words, we can say that in an array, elements are held continuously. The primary operations that are performed on the array are searching, updating, insertion, deletion, and transverse. Apart from this, an array is unable to store mixed data types like integers with character; the elements of the array should be of the same primitive data structure type. It can hold a decided number of integers, characters, etc.

Representation of An Array-

               int array [5] = {1,2,3,4,5,};

it stores the similar primitive data type of integers in order.

Array elements      1      2    3    4    5
Array indices      0      1    2      3    4

Array elements- are the values stored in the memory.

Array indices- are the location of the stored elements.

Array size- It is the length of an array that determines how many elements it can store, here the array size is 5 that means it can store 5 elements.

Location of first element is Array[0]=1

array[1]=2

array[4]=5

Operation performed in an array

  • Insertion − When an element is required to add in the index, then insertion operation is performed.
  • Deletion − If we have to delete any element from the block, then this operation is used.
  • Traverse −It is used to print all values in the array one after another. 
  • Search – When we know the index of an element, and we have to search the element, then use this operation.
  • Update − For any type of updation in the given index, this operation can be performed.

Types of Arrays

We further divide the arrays in-

  • One dimensional array
  • Multi-dimensional array

One-Dimensional Array-

A one-dimensional array is also known as a single-dimensional array as the elements are arranged in a series. Elements in the array type can be accessed by the index of either a row or column.

array[0]                     array[1]                    array[2]                   array[3]                  array[4]

Multi-Dimensional Array

It includes a two-dimensional array and a three-dimensional array.

In a two-dimensional array, elements can be accessed by the subscript of row and column index. For the operation of traversing the 2-D array, the value of row and columns are considered. For example, in the 2-D array face [2] [3], the first number defines the number of rows, and the second defines the number of columns, and (2*3)= six elements can be stored in this array. Where in a 3-D array, we can store [5] [4] [10]; 200 elements can be stored.

String- It defines the array of characters. In the string data structure, terminations occur with a particular character, ‘NULL,’ that denotes 0, and this feature differentiates it from the character array. The most performed operations on the string data structure are counting, searching, concatenation, copying, and replacing.

Representation of String-

char string_name[50]= “search”

In this case, the length of the string is 7 because the last block has a null character ‘0’.

Representation of Character Array-

Char string_name[50]= {‘S’, ‘e’, ‘a’, ‘r’, ‘c’, ‘h’}

Here, the character array’s length is five because a null character is not needed to denote terminations in the character array.

Stack –  Stack follows the LIFO structure(last in, first out).In the stack operations PUSH is used to add the value, and POP is used to remove the value from the stack. We can insert a new value from the top and can remove it from the bottom. We require the help of an array and linked list to implement the stack data structure.For example, we add a value 5 in a stack and we have another value 10 to insert then 5 will change its position and come down. The element we added in the last will be removed first and vice versa.

                                                                    ↓ insert 10

      5

                                                                     ↓

      10
        5

All the elements are structured in vertical form.

Queue – The queue is based on the FIFO principle (First In, First Out). Here the element that is inserted first will be removed first or vice versa. We can implement it with the help of array. The operations performed in a queue are enque to add the value, deque to remove the value,peek is searching for the top value, isfull denotes the array is full, isempty when the array is empty.

      S      E    A    R    C    H

      0                          1                    2                               3                  4                       5

      ↑                                                                                                                                 ↑

   front                                                                                                                             rear

         It is a queue forming character SEARCH. Here if we want to delete an element then  

    E      A    R      C        H

The element that we inserted first will be deleted first and the nest element will be front and the rear element will be the same.

Non-Linear Data Types-

 The elements are stored in a random order in Non-linear data types. Elements can be traced by the address only because they are not stored in order.

Examples of Non-linear data structure- 

  1. Tree
  2. Graph

Why learn Data structures and algorithms in java-

It is very advantageous to learn data structures and algorithms in java. It is used for

  • Efficiency: The program is very efficient in terms of space and time if the ADT(abstract data type) is appropriately implemented. 
  • Reusability: Many client programs at a time can use the data structure.
  • Abstraction: As the name suggests, the client can see the interface only rather than the internal working of the data structure specified by and ADT.
  • Data Search − To speed up the searching of data it is important to learn data structure and algorithms in java.
  • Processor speed − The processor speed is high but falls slow when data in million and billion.
  • Multiple requests − It can access multiple requests at the same time.

What is an algorithm

  An algorithm is also used by a java programmer for software development. Originally algorithms were used as a tool for mathematical calculations as it is a sequence of instructions used to complete a task or solving a particular problem in a finite duration of time. Algorithms are deeply used in computer science and data structure.

Advantages of Algorithms

  1. A person can write it with the pencil and paper.
  2. It produces at least one output.
  3. It can even zero or more inputs
  4. Instructions used in algorithms are clear and unambiguous.
  5. When there are a finite number of steps it terminates the process.
NOTE- Although programs may be algorithmic naturewise many programs do not terminate without external interruption.

Algorithms can be present in flowcharts and Pseudocode.

Flowcharts-An algorithm’s control flow is visually represented in the flow chart.

Pseudocode-An algorithm is represented in the textual form and it approximates the final source code.

The efficiency of the algorithm is calculated according to time and space complexity. In most of the cases the algorithm’s complexity depends on the algorithms itself and the problem.

Sorting Algorithms in Java

In the sorting algorithms elements are arranged in a certain order either in numeric order or lexicographical order. Numerical order includes the arrangement of numeric values in ascending or descending order whereas lexicographical order involves characters. Let’s discuss some sorting algorithms.

Selection Sort 

It is a merge of searching and sorting. If we need to arrange the elements in ascending order then the algorithm sorts an array by repeatedly finding the minimum element from the unsorted elements and put it in the appropriate position. For example we have elements in an array-

4 7 9 4 2 0 5  

now we applied selection sort algorithm on this array and we require to sort it in ascending order then the output will be

0 2 4 4 5 7 9

Bubble Sort 

 The name bubble sort filters out the elements to the top or array like bubbles that float on water. It is the simplest sorting algorithm and often known as a sinking sort. It picks up two adjacent elements for the comparison and then swaps them if they are in the right order or not.

Worst and Average Case Time Complexity- When an array is reverse sorted.

Best Case Time Complexity- When the array is already sorted.

Searching Algorithms 

Searching algorithms are equally important when we are talking about data structures and algorithms in Java. It usually performs actions in business applications and it is the most common algorithm. When we are given a collection of elements and we need to find an item with its properties then we use a searching algorithm.

Let’s discuss the frequently used searching algorithms.

Linear Search Algorithm 

It is a simplest search algorithm and involves sequential searching for an element in the provided data structure until the element is found otherwise the end of the structure is achieved. Item is returned when the item is found otherwise the algorithm returns NULL.

Binary Search Algorithm 

It works within an already sorted array to search the position of a target value. It is also known as logarithmic search. This item is compared with the middle elements of the list after division of the input collection into equal halves. The search terminated when the item was found.

Conclusion

These are the several data structures and algorithms in Java that a java programmer can use in the software development. These data structures and algorithms enhance the efficiency of the software. Apart from this there are many other advantages which are bound with the data structure and java coding help we have discussed earlier. The main motive to use this is to use the data effectively and appropriately.

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